« The letters stand for "Justice, Equality, Freedom, Islam"
Estimates range from 10,000 to 100,000
"One God whose proper name is Allah." Wallace Fard Muhammad became the divine messiah and incarnation of Allah in 1930. The Earth is over 76 trillion years old and all land was once called "Asia."
"The Blackman is the original man" (Message to the Blackman). Live righteously and worship Allah.
Mental resurrection of the righteous. Black people will be mentally resurrected first.
Prayer five times a day. Work for the equality of the African race. Respect laws of the land, don't carry arms, don't make war. Healthy living and abstinence from alcohol, smoking and substance abuse. Modest dress.
Qur'an and "Scriptures of all the Prophets of God" are holy texts. Influential writings include Elijah Muhammad's Message to the Blackman in America (1965)
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky and Annie Besant in the 19th C, Alice A. Bailey (1880-1949), flourished in 1970s and 80s
5 million (very approximate)
The Divine is an impersonal life force that pervades all things
Dawning of a New Age of heightened consciousness and international peace. Individuals can obtain a foretaste of the New Age through spiritual transformation ("Ascension"). More emphasis on the latter now. Evil comes from ignorance.
Reincarnation based on karma
Astrology; mysticism; use of crystals; yoga; tarot readings; holistic medicine; psychic abilities; angelic communications; channeling; amulets; fortune-telling
Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802-66) and others, late 19th century, USA.
Generally monism (all is One), but members might be theists, pantheists or panentheists. God is immanent; the universe is essentially spiritual.
Man is divine, essentially spirit, and has infinite possibility. Mind can control the body. Sin and sickness caused by incorrect thinking. Man can live in oneness with God in love, truth, peace, health, and prosperity.
"Life is eternal in the invisible kingdom of God."
Emphasis on spiritual and mental healing, but without rejection of modern medicine. Worship services; prayer for the sick; discussion of New Thought authors and ideas.
Writings of Quimby (such as the The Quimby Manuscripts) and other New Thought authors
Formal merger of Unitarians and Universalists in 1961, USA.
Not specified. Members might believe in one God, many gods, or no God.
Salvation is "spiritual health or wholeness." Members seek "inner and outer peace," insight, health, compassion and strength.
Not specified. Some believe in an afterlife, some do not. Very few believe in hell - "Universalism" indicates the belief that all will be saved.
Ceremonies for marriages, funerals, etc. Church services have elements from various religions. Emphasis on civil rights, social justice, equality and environment. Most UUs are anti-death penalty and pro-gay rights.
Many sacred texts are revered by various members; some none at all. The Bible is the most commonly used text.